Penny Stocks

Penny Stocks have long been the attraction of a lot of investors because of the tremendous returns that these stocks can generate in a short period of time. The reason that some of these stocks are able to generate such high returns which goes as high as five or even ten times the amount invested is the price and the volume of these stocks are low.

Because the volumes are low in such stocks when interest is generated in such stocks and people start investing the sudden spurt in volume leads to a large increase in price of such stocks.  


And that is the danger that exists while investing in these stocks. Because one can raise the prices many folds just by investing a few lakhs. Many a time these stocks are the target of Promoter manipulation.  


The modus operandi is quite simple. A few promoters group together and generate artificial interest in a particular penny stock. Suppose there are two promoters who hold majority of the stock in their company where the volumes in the markets are low. Now one promoter will start selling his stock in the open market and the other promoter will keep on buying this stock at progressively higher prices. Since the volume is low the promoters are easily able to jack the prices by doing this. At the same time they also engage in spreading rumors about the company and create interest among the ordinary investors. They are easily able to prop up the prices from a low of say Rs.5 to a high of Rs.20.  


You can think of the two promoters as husband and wife and think that the husband has sold off all his shares to the wife and the wife has paid for the stocks. The net effect remains the same as the stocks of the couple remain with them and so does the money. Although in the real world the trade is more complex this analogy helps us to understand what exactly is going on in this transaction.  


Now at the same time there is “real” demand for the stocks of the company in the market by investors other than the wife and it is at this time that the “wife” starts selling off chunks of her shares to the public at these propped up higher prices. Now because there is a genuine demand for those stocks in the market the prices do not fall as suddenly as they went up and this gives a good opportunity for the wife to get out of the stocks at a higher price than what they had originally had the shares for.  


This is a neat way promoters have come up of making money in the penny stocks but at the same time other investors who are not well informed about the stock market become victims and lose their money in the deal.  


This is not to say that all penny stocks will end up in losses, only to exercise caution while investing in the same and do some basic research before jumping into such penny stocks, which promise to triple in a month just because they have doubled in the last month. You need to look into why is it that they have doubled in the last month and get a sense of the safety that they offer before buying into it.  

Stock Market Tips

The stock markets are at all time highs and just like the last time around when the market was at its previous high every one thinks that nothing can go wrong and there is just one way where the market can go which is UP.

 Nothing could be farther from the truth and this will be clear from the way the market behaves in the next few months. Here are a few tips that would hopefully save you from losing a lot of cash in the current frenzy. 

Time and again investors have burnt their fingers in the markets and here are some tips to you so that you do not end up burning your fingers in this market. 

The number one tip at this point would be to sell if you have stocks and not to buy them if you have cash. The golden principle in the markets is “Buy when everyone else sells and sell when everyone else buys”. Simple enough right? Not really. Why? Because of peer pressure pure and simple. When everyone else around you seems to be having a ball at the markets you would feel like a fool if you didn’t participate now. 

OK so you can’t resist buying at this time then at least do yourself a favor and stay away from unknown Penny Stock and hot tips that your barber gave you. True that the stock has tripled in the last fifteen days but that was before people like your barber started buying the stock. Chances are that the Promoter of the company have started buying into the stock and have spread rumors like acquisition or a big export order to fool investors and sell out to them at a later date. 

Another tip that would serve useful is to value a stock based on its future growth and not its past performance. For instance many investors say that I will not buy stocks of X company because it has doubled in the last year. Well it may have doubled in the last year but that should not be the thing you should be telling yourself. Rather you should ask yourself why has this doubled in the last year and can it do so again? There should be a solid answer to your question like the launch of a new product or reduction in the prices of raw material. And indeed if the answer is in the positive then by all means go ahead and buy that stock regardless of what has happened in the last year. 

Another tip would be to remember what you are buying. Quite simply investors often forget that when buying a stock they are simply buying ownership in the companies. Most of you would know that nothing spectacular would happen in the company that you work for, in a month, they are not going to double their revenues and certainly not double your salary every month. Then why expect anything different from the companies that you are investing in. Why expect the prices to double in a month or two. Give time to your investments; don’t reduce it to a gamble. Only when you invest in fundamentally sound companies and then give the investments sufficient time to grow will you see some healthy returns on your investments. Ideally a minimum horizon of one year is a good time. 

Hope these tips will prove helpful and you will make a lot more in the stock markets than you have already been making. Happy Investing! 


Any investor when making financial investments can follow only three important and distinctive objectives: keeping the value of the invested money (investing in a monetary system that is stable to protect the income in under-evolved economies) 

gaining a profit from the invested money (most typical example are the bank deposits that regulate pay out income under the name of interest)  increasing the value of the invested money (when investments are made in stocks or land/buildings) 

To satisfy the diversified objectives of the investors, the mutual funds administrators created three big fund types that have as a purpose meeting the respective objectives through different placement politics. Technically speaking the three types are: 

Ø Monetary Funds The monetary funds have as an investing objective keeping the value of the invested money. These types of funds are generally addressed to investors that, because of aversion towards risk or other motives (like needing the invested money in a short time), don’t want the value of their investment to decrease. Until now, in the USA, there has never been a monetary fund that ever signalized a decrease in the title value. 

The monetary funds can be successfully used to efficiently evaluate and sustain the current bank accounts (of individuals or companies). There are countries where payments can be made right out of the monetary fund, because sometimes these funds act just like a current bank account. Monetary funds invest usually in stocks that generate income and the variation in profit is very low. Their main investment areas are: national/state bonds, bank deposits, commerce effects emitted by commercial banks or commercial companies with an average withdraw limit of 90 days (they only choose low withdraw limits). 

Ø Income Funds  These funds have as an investing objective gaining a profit from the invested money or generating stable income. They are addressed to those that need supplementary stable income in addition to their current income. Since the majority of the incomes made by the fund are distributed to investors, the stock value doesn’t suffer significant variation. Still, because of the structure of the portfolio, there is a risk that the stock value would decrease.
Generally, investors in income funds are retired persons, young families or families that have to pay for their children’s studies. The investors can opt for cashing the distributed incomes or for reinvesting them automatically in the fund. The income funds will invest mostly in stocks that generate high incomes, but because of the long periods before withdrawal it is possible that they become exposed to value variations. The main investment fields are: bonds, asset mortgages, preferential stocks, common stocks emitted by very good companies with a rule of distributing consistent dividends. 

Ø Growth Funds 

Growth funds have as a primary objective increasing the value of the invested money (the value of the stocks). They mostly address those investors who wish for their investment to grow over time. The stock value will grow or decrease depending on the evolution of the stock market and the abilities of the investor.
The main categories that invest in growth funds are mature families that have already satisfied their basic material necessities (a house, a car and other assets) and they can afford to risk some of their current incomes with an investment that has a higher risk factor. Of course, in these kinds of funds the investors can also be persons with an appetite for risk. Within the category of growth funds we distinguish a different subcategory, named accumulation funds. These funds are the fund in which the investor, with the help of a contract sighed, has the responsibility to regularly invest in stocks (monthly, quarterly). Also they may sound like they belong to a different type, they are nevertheless growth funds.
A growth fund will invest in stocks whose value is considerably variable over time, any types of stocks, convertible bonds, options and futures contracts.
There are many other funds classifications, by the geographical zones they invest in, by the risk factor of the portfolio, etc., but, leaving these details aside, any fund will fit into one of the three categories presented above.  

Common Mistakes made by Investors



The individual investor often makes certain typical mistakes that will eventually cause him to give up or to lose everything.

 Believing every investment you make is 100% safe
Any investment implies a certain risk factor that is determined by a multitude of factors. Disregarding these factors leads to wrongly evaluating the wining possibilities. 

Great expectations
Those investors that neglect risks also have great expectations regarding the general profits. In this case disappointment will occur, maybe even sadness or desperation when they lose the final investment also. 

Not doing your homework
You must be as informed as possible about your investment, about its risks and the credibility of the brokers and company administrators. 

Not diversifying the portfolio
When we say investment portfolio, we mean all the investment a certain person has made.
Through diversification the investor will attempt to cover through profits some companies that might register losses. Regarding the optimal rapport between winning and security, a portfolio will have a pyramidal distribution of the stock types. The biggest investment will be done in companies with minimum risk and maximum security like governmental bonds. Climbing the risk stair the number of investments will decrease. Investments in extremely risky companies will represent a low percentage of the portfolio. 

Being greedy and/or being afraid
Greed never pushes to safe investment. Through greed you will only make investments that don’t stand a chance. Fear will determine a rather calm and secure behavior that won’t bring you losses but will cause you to flip over great opportunities. 

Investing because of a “tip”
An investment has to be done accordingly to the needs and risk tolerance of every individual. These two elements are unique and like fingerprints are always different, the same way there can’t be two persons with identical needs and risk tolerance. So, if an investment is an opportunity for the one that who told you the tip, it doesn’t mean it is for you too. 

Not giving up on time
This is a mistake that can be hardly eliminated. It’s hard because the market fluctuates anyway and investors can’t say when it’s just a normal day or if the stock price is really going down. Many people won’t admit they made a financial mistake and don’t want to give up their stocks. It has been statistically proven that in these cases things go from bad to worse.
Avoiding such situations is difficult even for a pro who usually has more information that the individual investor. 

Investing only short term
Avoiding, or reducing this risk can be achieved by investing long term in profitable stable companies. In these cases, bad yearly evolutions can be recovered through better years. 

Thinking you are the smartest
Every investor bases his decisions on information he knows at a certain moment. Not wanting to hear advice or to hear new things, does not make you smarter, it brings you a great disadvantage and you will only put on hazard with your investments. 

Peter Lynch – Golden rules for success in the stock market



For those who never had the opportunity to read one of Peter Lynch’s books, the well-know American fund manager, let’s take a peak at his golden rules for success, meant to be of use to the nonprofessional investors, according to Peter Lynch.



Lynch has led the investment fund “Magellan”, of the administrative society “Fidelity” during 1982 – 1992. This fund grew in that period from 50 million dollars to 50 billion dollars, and the annual growth factor was of about 29%. He clearly knew what he was doing, so his words are not to be taken lightly.



He wrote a book : “One Up on Wall Street” and in his book, next to investment strategies and theories, he included some guidelines for the amateur investor, guidelines that over the years brought so many people to success.



1. Investment is fun, exciting but as all things that are not boring, it can get dangerous if you don’t research your actions.

2. You hold an advantage and it is not what you are going to get from Wall Street. It is what you already have. You can even be better than experts if you are using your advantage and invest in companies you know all about. The advantage is essentially your not worrying about your boss or peer pressure and the public scrutinizing your every move. Other advantages that an amateur holds is the relatively smaller amounts to invest which he or she can invest in smaller companies which he discovers and which are not so liquid.


3. If a stock exists, then there’s a company that holds it. You need to know nothing about the stock itself but everything about the company.


4. Often you can’t see why a stock increased when the actual company had fewer sales. If you are looking at just a few months, then you can’t find a pattern. But over years, the pattern is clear. You must be patient and always own successful companies.


6. You must know what stocks you are buying and why you bought them.


7. Don’t go for a long shot even if it seems to be an opportunity. It will most certainly miss.


8. Investing is like children. You don’t make more children than you can take care of, so don’t invest in more than 12 companies overall, and 5 at a time because you won’t be able to track them.


9. Don’t invest when you can’t understand the finances of a company. The greatest losses come from companies that are not solvable.


10. If the market crashes, don’t panic like all the others do. Take this opportunity and buy cheap stocks from the ones who panicked.


11. The more companies you study, the more chances you get to find good ones and companies that are not yet known on Wall Street.


12. If you just invest without studying, you will play the market as if you were paying cards without being allowed to actually see your hand.

Picking a Stock

Before investing in a company we have to inform ourselves about the business area it belongs to, taking into consideration the factors that stick to that area and to the macro-economical environment. Let’s briefly review some selecting methods and norms.

 1. Business Area – when referring to this we must reflect upon four aspects that appear in its sector: 

 – Competition: It always helps to know how much of the market our company has and if it has or not an advantage that can make it superior to others. 

– The customer power: How much does the company depend on customers? Could a customer buy a concurrent company to integrate production? 

– If the products being offered by the company are threatened by the state, society or some kind of substitute goods that might exist on the market. 

– If hurdles exist on the market area the company has placed its business in. 

2. The structure of share holders: Companies that have most of their shares on the stock market should be preferred. This is because there will be more liquidity in such stocks and in times of crisis one will not be “stuck” with these shares. 

3. Financial performance: You should watch the growth and efficiency indicators over a relevant interval of 3 to 5 years of that company and of its peers. Also it’s important to know the debt if any, the health of the transactions, and the cash balance variable factor. 

4. How is the company evaluated by the market? – To correctly answer we have to look through three further factors: – The P/E Multiple of a stock, notion that has as theoretical interpretation the number of years in which the starting costs are paid back with the profits. 

– The price/book value which generally depends on the efficiency of the company.  – The dividend yield that only occurs when we are talking about companies that give their shareholders dividends for every share. 


This type of looking at the problem consists of selecting the stocks based on information regarding the financial situations of the company, its area of activity, and also on comparing the price with other similar ones from the market. The fundamental analysis is useful when investing in stocks for a long period of time (at least a year). Those who use this type of analysis have themselves different objectives of evolution and profit, using mostly certain criteria.

Buying stocks – based on the fundamental analysis

Certain criteria are to be taken into consideration. There are three important categories that can be used alone or in combination.
1. Value investing: Some long term investors are determine the value of the business they are placing their money in, searching to buy the stock at the greatest discount possible compared to the calculated value. In other words, the question here is how much do the companies’ goods will be worth if they were to be sold? An estimated answer can be given evaluating active elements they posses (such as lands, fixed transportation means, floating actives) at a correct market price, adding to that the funds the company has. Investors who use this criterion think that the respective business has a future in efficiency if the stock holders are to be chanced, if the economic environment is changed and improved or any other major alteration, at which moment the company would value at least three times as much as in the beginning.

2. Growth Stocks are used by the investors preoccupied with identifying companies belonging to areas that tend to increase and to expand. They are focusing on the rhythm of evolution of the business figure and profit, determining the growth rate in real terms. This can be forecasted upon the future, but it is necessary to also identity the economic and legislative risk factors that could appear and alter the graph. Also investors reflect upon the quality of that company and their advantage or disadvantage compared to concurrent companies. Usually, growing companies don’t give dividends, the profit remaining just the difference between the buying price and the selling price of a stock. These companies are the most risky ones, especially because of the lack of dividends, which could’ve added some stability.
3. Income Stocks: Income stocks are dividend stocks. Investors prefer these stocks because they give them some stability and a clear benefit. These stocks are recommended if the stock price is lower than the estimated dividend price, and if they belong to mature companies. Usually, when investing in such stocks you are making a long-term investment.

Selling stocks – based on the fundamental analysis

A stock has to be sold if analyzing the situation fundamentally when the answer to the question Why am I buying this stock? is not true anymore. The following situations can also be reasons to sell:
– a newsflash about a company or about the entire economic area modifies initial expectations
– the price for the stock has been over evaluated
– over evaluation can be determined by comparing it with the ones from other companies

Listing Gains

IPO are generally priced at a discount, which means that if the intrinsic value of a share is perceived to be Rs.100 the shares will be offered at a price, which is lesser than Rs.100 say Rs.80 during the IPO. When the stock actually lists in the market it will list closer to Rs.100. The difference between the two prices is known as Listing Gains, which an investor makes when investing in an IPO and making money at the listing of the IPO.

Types of Risk

Risk is a very important factor to be taken into consideration when deciding to invest in the stock market. Any investor thinks that big profits are a good thing and risk is a bad thing. The thing is that usually risk and profits go hand in hand, they are even some times directly proportional (the bigger the risk, the bigger the winning possibility).It’s known that investments on the stock market are risky investments, but building up an equilibrated portfolio can limit the risk. Its important to understand what you are dealing with and risk can be broadly categorised as follows:

Company RISK

Every company has its own risk that varies, of course, from organization to organization. So, we can find companies with low risks which usually are big stable companies, with shares worth a lot, and companies with a big risk factor or companies that never paid their dividends, that belong to an unstable economic area and their shares are worth less. To decrease the risk, even when the only intention is to speculate a little, it is recommended to invest part of the capital in low risk companies and the other part in high risk ones.
Studies conducted over the America market show that having a portfolio of at least 10-20 different types of stocks can almost eliminate the company risk.

Sector RISK

Diversifying your portfolio doesn’t only mean to own stocks from different companies, but also to own stocks from different economic sectors. The sector or industry risk threatens companies that produce similar or interdependent products, so that the investors in a certain sector have to be aware of the high risk factor. So, investing in independent sectors can be a method to diminuate the sector risk, with the possibility of conserving the initial value of the portfolio.

Market RISK

The market risk is also called the un-diversifying risk, because this risk can not be avoided no matter how many different stocks might be present in the portfolio.

In any country there are political and economical issues that can make the prices of stocks to be badly predicted and so the market risk increases. This is the only actual risk. All others can be avoided easily: lose a little with one company, but win a lot with all the others.

The market risk is to be anticipated sometimes if analyzing the situation of the country and economy itself. First determine expected political or economical changes. Then try to guess other unexpected measures that might occur. And only after that you will have to ask yourself in what way your companies will be influenced, witch sectors will grow and which fall.